Valentin N. Hartmann, Marc Toussaint

Machine Learning & Robotics Lab, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Learning and Intelligent Systems Group, TU Berlin, Germany

Brief: We use a search over possible assignments and orders in combination with a prioritized multi-robot path planner to produce a low makespan solution to a subset of TAMP problems.

For a more in-depth, but hopefully more accessible version than the paper itself, have a look at my post on this paper.


We propose an approach to find low-makespan solutions to multi-robot multi-task planning problems in environments where robots block each other from completing tasks simultaneously. We introduce a formulation of the problem that allows for an approach based on greedy descent with random restarts for generation of the task assignment and task sequence. We then use a multi-agent path planner to evaluate the makespan of a given assignment and sequence. The planner decomposes the problem into multiple simple subproblems that only contain a single robots and a single task, and can thus be solved quickly to produce a solution for a fixed task sequence. The solutions to the subproblems are then combined to form a valid solution to the original problem. We showcase the approach on robotic stippling and robotic bin picking with up to 4 robot arms. The makespan of the solutions found by our algorithm are up to 30% lower compared to a greedy approach.


Latest version: arXiv


On the left, the greedy (alternating between the two arms) version is shown, and on the right, the optimized variant can be seen.


  title = {Towards computing low-makespan solutions for 
           multi-arm multi-task planning problems},
  author = {Hartmann, Valentin N. and Toussaint, Marc},
  year = {2023},
  booktitle={International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling:
             Planning and Robotics Workshop (RobPlan)},
  url = {},


The research has been supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy – EXC 2120/1 – 390831618 “IntCDC”.